Scotland, mask mandates https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2022… Nicola Sturgeon, “prudent” mandatory mask rules, until April 4 at the earliest. Mask rules, case numbers well ahead of England https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulati… 2,073,900 people (1 in 25) in England 97,900 people (1 in 30) in Wales 143,800 people (1 in 13) in Northern Ireland 299,900 people (1 in 18) in Scotland COVID-19: Why Are We Ignoring Infection-Acquired Immunity? https://www.medscape.co.uk/viewarticl… Antibodies from natural infection, more abundant, more potent, at least 10 times more potent, than immunity generated by vaccination alone Hybrid immunity, induces a sort of ‘super-immunity’, irrespective of whether infection or vaccination comes first, there is increasing evidence that immunity derived from natural infection with COVID-19 gives powerful protection on its own. Natural immunity has been shown to be both highly protective and long lasting, and to safeguard against both re-infection and severe disease. Vaccination before or after SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to robust humoral response and antibodies that effectively neutralize variants (Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) Portland, US https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/s… Antibody responses from the initial wave of vaccines in early 2021 have waned over 6 months, contributing to an increase in breakthrough infections We measure neutralizing antibody responses Those with breakthrough infections Hybrid immunity No infection history We find that human immune sera After breakthrough infection and vaccination After natural infection broadly neutralize variants to a similar degree Age Negatively correlates with antibody response after vaccination alone, no correlation with age was found in breakthrough or hybrid immune groups. Together, our data suggest that the additional antigen exposure from natural infection substantially boosts the quantity, quality, and breadth of humoral immune response regardless of whether it occurs before or after vaccination COVID-19 Cases and Hospitalizations by COVID-19 Vaccination Status and Previous COVID-19 Diagnosis — California and New York, May–November 2021 https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/w… By early October, persons who survived a previous infection had lower case rates than persons who were vaccinated alone. Natural immunity against COVID-19 significantly reduces the risk of reinfection: findings from a cohort of sero-survey participants (India) https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.11… strong plausibility that development of antibody following natural infection not only protects against re-infection by the virus to a great extent, but also safeguards against progression to severe COVID-19 disease EU drug regulator expresses doubt on need for fourth booster dose https://www.reuters.com/business/heal… European Medicines Agency, Head of Vaccines Strategy, Marco Cavaleri While use of additional boosters can be part of contingency plans, repeated vaccinations within short intervals would not represent a sustainable long-term strategy Boosters every four months, poses the risk of overloading people’s immune systems, and leading to fatigue in the population. There is a need for an updated vaccine, any such change would need to be coordinated globally.